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Real-Time Observation Sheds New Light On Multiple Sclerosis

In diseases such as multiple sclerosis, cells of the immune system infiltrate the brain tissue, where they cause immense damage. For many years, it was an enigma as to how these cells can escape from the bloodstream. This is no trivial feat, given that specialized blood vessels act as a barrier between the nervous system and the bloodstream. Until now, tissue sections provided the sole evidence that the immune cells really do manage to reach the nerve cells. Now, a team of scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, the University Medical Center Göttingen, and other institutes, has witnessed the movements of these cells "live" under the microscope for the very first time. In the process, they discovered several new behavioural traits of the immune cells. The consolidated findings mark a significant step forward in our understanding of this complex disease. (Nature, 14 October 2009) .....full report in Medical News Today



[Pathogenetic treatment of multiple sclerosis: the present and the future] - In this review, we present results of studies of drugs modifying the MS course which have been approved for MS treatment and those that are in the stage of clinical trials and expected to enlarge possibilities of MS treatment. - Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2009;109(7 Suppl 2):90-9. in PubMed

[Brain atrophy and neurological impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis] - An aim of the study was to investigate a relationship between global and local brain atrophy with neurological impairment (motor dysfunction) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with different levels of disease severity. - Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2009;109(7 Suppl 2):32-7. in PubMed

The effect of war stress on multiple sclerosis exacerbations and radiological disease activity. - Our study shows that exposure to war-related events is likely to lead to an increase in both clinical relapses and MRI disease activity in patients with MS. - J Neurol Sci. 2009 Nov 3. [Epub ahead of print] in PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of children and adults with paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. - The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging metrics of paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis to adult-onset multiple sclerosis. - Brain 2009 Nov 5. [Epub ahead of print] in PubMed

The diagnostic value of earlier and later components of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) in multiple sclerosis. - Abnormal VEMP imply the presence of lesions undetected by MRI neuroimaging, which verifies the diagnostic value of the method. Unilateral absence of n34p44 complex was related with sensorineural hearing loss, supporting the hypothesis that n34p44 is of cochlear origin. - J Vestib Res. 2009;19(1-2):59-66. in PubMed

Molecular profiling of glatiramer acetate early treatment effects in multiple sclerosis. - Our findings demonstrate that GA treatment induces alternations of immunomodulatory gene expression patterns that are important for suppression of disease activity already at three months of treatment and can be used as molecular markers of GA activity. -Dis Markers 2009;27(2):63-73. in PubMed

The impact of disability, fatigue and sleep quality on the quality of life in multiple sclerosis. - In conclusion, it may be said that MS patients had poor and moderate quality of mental and physical health. The quality of life was impaired as seen by PSQI, EDSS, and FSS. It is our suggestion that these patients require the attention of health care professionals, to be observed for the need of possible psychological support. - Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2008 Oct;11(4):236-41. in PubMed

Optic neuritis--more than a loss of vision. - Aust Fam Physician 2009 Oct;38(10):789-93. in PubMed

[Multiple sclerosis at the time of world-wide use of disease modifying treatment] - The review discusses issues of multiple sclerosis (MS) management at the time of world-wide use of effective treatment - disease modifying treatment including the influence of the time of treatment start and adherence to treatment on its results, monitoring and treatment strategy of neurodegenerative disorders, problems of new trials, changes in MS course and significance of symptomatic treatment and rehabilitation. The discussion of many aspects is based on the data presented in the articles published in this special issue of the journal. - Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2009;109(7 Suppl 2):4-9. in PubMed

[Genetic predisposition to multiple sclerosis as a polygenic autoimmune disease] - The biological properties of the MS-associated genes support the notion that autoimmune inflammatory processes play an important role in MS, whereas an existence of mainly non-overlapping subgroups of patients bearing different predisposing genetic factors is consistent with the MS genetic heterogeneity. - Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2009;109(7 Suppl 2):16-22. in PubMed


MS Patients Need More Comprehensive Training

Self management training for people with multiple sclerosis shouldn’t be limited to patient education. It needs to include a comprehensive range of techniques for skill building and getting the resources they need.

That’s one conclusion of a “white paper” recently released by the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers. The paper comes from a panel chaired by Robert Fraser of the University of Washington Rehabilitation Research and Training Center in Seattle.

“Work in multiple sclerosis has chiefly been related to physical conditioning and we need a more holistic perspective on a wellness intervention,” suggests Fraser, who has optained a research and training grant to develop the “Self Management Consensus Conference” being held April 2010 in Seattle.

The panel says patients need to be prepared for more than the changes the disease brings. They need to be prepared for the challeges of rehabilitation and disease-modifying therapies.
Go to for more information. ...... this story found in



FDA delays ruling on Acorda’s MS drug until 1/2010

HAWTHORNE, N.Y. (AP) – Acorda Therapeutics Inc. said Thursday the Food and Drug Administration delayed a ruling on its multiple sclerosis drug candidate Fampridine-SR by three months.

The agency was due to make a decision by Thursday, but the ruling is now due by Jan. 22, 2010.
Acorda said the FDA extended its review because it recently submitted new information on its risk evaluation strategy for the drug.

Acorda sent in the additional information following a meeting with an FDA panel on Oct. 14. The panel recommended that Fampridine-SR receive FDA approval.



Multiple Sclerosis: What Part Do Relapses Play In Severe Disability?

People with multiple sclerosis (MS) who have relapses within the first five years of onset appear to have more severe disability in the short term compared to people who do not have an early relapse, according to a new study published in the November 4, 2009, issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. The study is one of the first to examine how MS relapses affect people during different time periods of the disease.

Research shows that 85 percent of people with MS begin by having the relapsing-remitting form of the disease and the majority of these people later develop secondary progressive MS. A relapse is defined in the study as worsening of neurological symptoms for more than 24 hours, without a fever or infection. Because relapse-related symptoms often improve within a few weeks, it's been unclear how much disability comes from relapses, and how much from progression.

For the study, scientists reviewed the medical records of 2,477 people with MS who experienced relapses in British Columbia, Canada. The study looked at whether the participants had disability severe enough to require the use of a cane for walking and whether this was related to relapses occurring within five years, five to 10 years, or more than 10 years after onset of symptoms. The participants were followed for an average of 20 years. During that time, the group experienced 11,722 relapses.

Scientists found that people who had a relapse within five years of disease onset were at a 48 percent higher hazard (a measure of relative risk) of needing a cane to walk within five years of disease onset than those who did not have an early relapse. Importantly, the impact of the early relapse lessened over time. Those with early relapse who did not need a cane after five years were at only a 10 percent higher hazard (a measure of relative risk) of needing one 10 years after disease onset than those without early relapses.

"Our findings may represent an important message to people diagnosed with MS today. Those who have a history of relapses could potentially be offered reassurance that as time goes on, these relapses will have a diminishing effect on their everyday lives," said study author Helen Tremlett, PhD, with the University of British Columbia in Vancouver. "In addition, our study calls upon the need for new medications that target axonal degeneration, which is suspected of causing permanent disability, especially for people who have had MS for many years or who are older at diagnosis."

The impact of relapses that occurred later, either at five to 10 or more than 10 years after the start of the disease, also waned over time and became insignificant after long-term follow up. Relapses in people under 25 had a longer impact on disability compared to those over 35 years.

"There may be a longer window of opportunity for treating younger people with MS right away, changing the course of progression later on," Tremlett said.

The study was supported by the U. S. National MS Society.
Source: Rachel Seroka American Academy of Neurology .......full story in Medical News Today


What's new for 'Multiple Sclerosis' in PubMed

Neuronal and BBB damage induced by sera from patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. - Int J Mol Med. 2009 Dec;24(6):743-7. in PubMed

Type 1 diabetes mellitus and multiple sclerosis: common etiological features. - In this Review, we highlight the latest epidemiological and genetic findings, which have identified many features common to both disorders. - Nat Rev Endocrinal. 2009 Nov 3. [Epub ahead of print] in PubMed

Effect of neutralizing antibodies on biomarker responses to interferon beta: the INSIGHT study. - These data provide evidence that high titers of neutralizing antibodies abolish the in vivo response to interferon beta. - Neurology. 2009 Nov 3;73(18):1493-500. in PubMed

Effect of anti-IFN{beta} antibodies on MRI lesions of MS patients in the BECOME study. - High levels of anti-interferon beta (IFNbeta) antibodies, which result in diminished bioactivity, are correlated with reduced therapeutic efficacy of IFNbeta. -Neurology. 2009 Nov 3;73(18):1485-92. in PubMed

Resistance training improves muscle strength and functional capacity in multiple sclerosis. - Level of evidence: The present study provides level III evidence supporting the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training can improve muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis. - Neurology. 2009 Nov 3;73(18):1478-84. in PubMed

Time course transcriptomics of IFNB1b drug therapy in multiple sclerosis. - Autoimmunity. 2009 Nov 3. [Epub ahead of print] in PubMed

Progressive changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer in patients with multiple sclerosis. - Axonal loss in the optic nerve of patients with MS is greater than that expected in healthy subjects, regardless of the presence of a previous optic neuritis. - Eur J Opthalmol. 2009 Sep 30. [Epub ahead of print] in PubMed



Biogen’s Tysabri Problems the Fault of European Docs?

As mentioned in my last BNET Pharma posting, Biogen Idec’s key multiple sclerosis drug Tysabri had been linked to 23 worldwide cases of a potentially deadly brain infection called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or PML — with most confirmed cases centered in Europe, in particular Germany. Could there be a link between the seemingly higher prevalence of Tysabri-related PML cases in Germany and lack of oversight?
Hard and fast data confirms that from July 2006 (when Tysabri marketing resumed) to September 8, 2009, thirteen worldwide cases of Tysabri-related PML occurred in patients being treated for MS with Tysabri monotherapy. Of these, only four cases were patients in the United States, according to an FDA Post-marketing Drug Safety report.

Germany is an important MS market for Biogen. Aside from the U.S., Europe is home to four of the top seven markets — Germany, Italy, UK, and Spain — in terms of commercial dollars spent on disease modifying drugs for use in MS, according to an analysis of the global MS market by the pharmaceutical research outfit Visiongain.

Patients receiving monthly Tysabri infusions in the U.S. must be enrolled in the TOUCH Distribution Program overseen by Biogen, which involves (i) extensive monitoring of all patients for signs of PML and (ii) education of all patients and providers, with strong emphasis communicated to all parties that the drug is contraindicated for use in MS patients taking any drugs that may increase their risk of opportunistic infections, including drugs that lower immune function (e.g., azathioprine, chemotherapy, cyclosporine) or immunomodulators, such as the interferon-based disease-modifying therapies.

Aside from voluntarily enrollment of patients in Biogen’s Phase 4 trial, TYGRIS (Tysabri Global Observation Program in Safety), which is a prospective 5-year, 5000-patient cohort observational study to further evaluate PML risk and overall safety of Tysabri therapy, there are few — if any — restricted distribution programs in place throughout Europe.

As mentioned, most of the other reported cases of PML are alleged to have occurred in Germany, where oversight is purportedly lax, especially in the monitoring of the presence of latent JC virus and a mandated prior “washout” phase required in patients recently removed from other immunosuppressant therapies, both high-risk factors for development of PML.

However, since late summer, German authorities have been working with the company to make sure “appropriate use of Tysabri is monitored and followed up with [patients],” Chief Executive Jim Mullen said on the third-quarter earnings call.

The duration of therapy in the newly diagnosed PML patients is unknown. That said, lax supervision in German — and other European — MS treatment facilities could be a contributing risk factor behind the higher incidence(s) and prevalence of reported PML cases.

In the last 12 months, Biogen has engineered relationships between academic reference centers and many of the larger MS clinics in Germany so that the prescribing of Tysabri can occur in a more structured environment — in compliance with a common protocol developed and published by the Medical Advisory Board of German MS, according to chief operating officer Robert Hamm. To date, 250 top German MS treatment centers are linked to 40 reference centers, he said on the call. This initiative should play out in the company’s favor as European regulators re-assess the risk-benefit profile of Tysabri.

View full post here:;content

This story taken from MS News Today

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Genetic Clue May Predict Multiple Sclerosis Severity

Biomarker May Have Potential to Help With Diagnosis, Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

Oct. 19, 2009 -- A newly identified biomarker may be linked to the severity of multiple sclerosis and may one day help with diagnosis and treatment of the often frustrating and unpredictable disease.

Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the brain and spinal cord that affects more than 400,000 Americans. MS is believed to be an autoimmune disease because the body’s immune system attacks the protective myelin sheath around nerve fibers. This results in problems with nerve messages being conducted to and from the brain.

In a new study published in Nature Immunology, researchers identified short RNA molecules, known as microRNAs, that were linked to multiple sclerosis symptoms in mice, depending on their level of activity or expression. The researchers found that when expression of the microRNA called miR-326 was silenced, MS severity in mice was mild. When the microRNA expression was increased, disease severity was severe.

The researchers note that microRNAs have been linked to regulation of autoimmunity in mouse studies, but details about the specific microRNAs involved in autoimmune disease are unclear. ......full story in WebMD



Results Published from Rituximab Study in Primary-Progressive MS

Primary Endpoint Not Reached but Subgroup Analysis Shows Evidence of Benefit in Younger Patients with Active Disease

A study of intravenous rituximab (Rituxan®, Genentech and Biogen Idec) in 439 people with primary-progressive MS has shown that the drug did not slow disease progression when compared with inactive placebo, the primary endpoint of the study. However, MRI scans suggested some benefit, and an analysis of subgroups within the study showed significant delays in patients younger than age 51 and with active disease observed on MRI scans. Early results from this OLYMPUS study were originally reported in a press release in 2008, and at the American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting in 2009, and now Kathleen Hawker, MD (The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus) and colleagues have published their complete findings in Annals of Neurology (2009;66[4]:460-471) ....... read the full report National MS Society



Update on Tysabri and PML: Company Releases Details of Cases and Risks

According to information released yesterday by Biogen Idec, there have been 24 confirmed cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML, a viral infection of the brain that usually leads to death or severe disability) among people who have used Tysabri® (natalizumab, Biogen Idec and Elan Pharmaceuticals) after it became available for prescription in July 2006.

As of the end of September 2009, 60,700 people have used Tysabri worldwide. Although the absolute risk for PML in patients treated with Tysabri cannot be precisely determined, the sponsor has now released data suggesting that the risk increases with increasing time on therapy, starting out lower than the one-in-one thousand level that was estimated at the time of Tysabri’s re-approval in 2006, and rising after two years of infusions to about one in one thousand. There is insufficient information to determine the risk of PML in those who have been on therapy for three years or more. Right now only 2,000 people have been on the therapy for over three years.

This release followed an October 23 announcement from the EMEA, the European equivalent of the U.S. FDA, indicating that one of its advisory committees was launching a review of the risks and benefits of Tysabri in light of the increasing number of new cases of PML.

Signs of PML: Typical symptoms associated with PML progress quickly over days to weeks, and can include:
• personality or behavioral changes
• changes in thinking, memory, and orientation leading to confusion
• onset of seizures, clumsiness or progressive weakness on one side of the body
• disturbances of vision

If individuals taking Tysabri experience new, unusual symptoms, they should contact their prescribing physician immediately. Physicians who need guidelines on the protocol to follow when they have a patient on Tysabri who experiences unusual symptoms should contact Biogen Idec.

Details of Cases: According to the company, the 24 cases of PML have occurred in both men and women who had been given infusions of Tysabri every four weeks for a duration ranging from one year to three and a half years, with an average of two years.

16 of the cases occurred in Europe, and 8 in the United States

4 of the 24 died

The degree of disability in the 20 survivors is a wide spectrum: at the milder end, some have recovered enough to return to work, and at the other extreme, some are confined to bed, requiring extensive assistance with activities of daily living, and others were in between this range. Further details of their condition were not provided.

It appears that when PML is detected and treated early, it generally improves outcomes. It is important that individuals taking this drug and their doctors be vigilant in monitoring for any occurrence of new, unusual symptoms that might indicate PML.

Based on these cases, the sponsor stressed that, contrary to prior information, the presence of gadolinium-enhancing lesions on MRI does not exclude the possibility of PML. Likewise, the absence of JC virus DNA in the spinal fluid does not exclude PML.

There has been no characteristic among those who have developed PML that would give substantial clues to who might be more likely to develop it, except that half of the cases had prior histories of having been on immunosuppresive therapies, such as mitoxantrone, and less commonly, azathioprine and methotrexate.

Right now there is no test that can predict who is more likely at risk for developing PML while using Tysabri; in a large company-sponsored study, testing of blood cells, plasma, serum and urine for the causative JC virus in people before and after 48 weeks of Tysabri therapy (Rudick et al. ECTRIMS 2009) did not show any differences in the presence of the virus in those fluids.

The results of these studies, performed at the U.S. National Instituties of Health, differ somewhat from an earlier study (N. Engl. J. Med., 361:1067, 2009) suggesting higher virus levels after treatment.

When PML was suspected, Tysabri infusions were halted. There is no specific therapy to treat PML, but the best hope is to reconstitute a person’s immune responses. In most of the 24 cases, once PML was confirmed, Tysabri was removed from their systems with the blood-cleansing treatments of either plasma exchange or immunoadsorption.

During the aftermath of PML, as the immune system begins to recover, a condition called IRIS (immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome) usually occurs about 4 weeks after the removal of Tysabri from the system. The sponsors suggested that some of the treating physicians found that prompt use of intravenous steroids to treat this brain inflammation led to improvement.

The FDA provides post-marketing safety warnings on Tysabri at this link, although the updated information above is not currently provided.

Read the report at National MS Society

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Facet Biotech Reports Third Quarter 2009 Financial Results

REDWOOD CITY, CA--(Marketwire - November 3, 2009) - Facet Biotech Corporation (NASDAQ: FACT) today reported financial results for the third quarter ended September 30, 2009.

"We are executing on our development programs while remaining vigilant on cost containment and expense management," said Faheem Hasnain, president and chief executive officer of Facet Biotech. "We expect our lead program, daclizumab in multiple sclerosis, to enter a second registration-enabling study in the first half of 2010, triggering a $30 million milestone payment to us from Biogen Idec. Our four development-stage oncology programs continue to progress, and for our elotuzumab and TRU-016 oncology programs, we remain on track toward achieving important development milestones in the coming year. Our strong balance sheet enables us to support our programs through these and other future critical milestones to the end of 2012. We possess a focused and promising pipeline and have never been more confident in the future growth prospects for Facet Biotech." ....... full financial report in Marketwire


Modifying Neural Stem Cells Improves Their Therapeutic Efficacy

Stem cells isolated from the brain of adult mice (adult neural stem cells [aNSCs]) have shown very modest therapeutic effects in a mouse model of the chronic inflammatory neurodegenerative disease multiple sclerosis. But now, Guang-Xian Zhang and colleagues, at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, have developed an approach to enhance the therapeutic effects of aNSCs in this model of multiple sclerosis. Specifically, the researchers genetically engineered aNSCs to express the anti-inflammatory molecule IL-10 and found that these cells induced more extensive functional and pathological recovery from ongoing disease than did nonengineered aNSCs. Importantly, the IL-10-aNSCs mediated their effects in multiple ways, suppressing immune system attack of nerve cells, promoting nerve cell repair, and promoting production of the nerve cell protective sheath. The authors hope these results might increase the chance that aNSC-based therapies might one day be developed for clinical use. ...full report in Medical News Today


ACG: New Pain Relievers Cause Less GI Injury

SAN DIEGO -- Two investigational pain relievers demonstrated superior gastroprotection when compared with a conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in clinical trials reported here. ....... full report in MedPage Today


What's new for Multiple Sclerosis in PubMed

Progressive changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer in patients with multiple sclerosis. - Axonal loss in the optic nerve of patients with MS is greater than that expected in healthy subjects, regardless of the presence of a previous optic neuritis. - Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009 Sep 30. [Epub ahead of print] in PubMed

Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity in multiple sclerosis. - MS is accompanied by visual function alteration even in the absence of acute optic neuropathy. The important correlation between functional and anatomic aspect confirms the value of OCT to appreciate the subclinical involvement of the optic nerve. Associated with tests exploring visual function, the OCT could reveal itself pertinent in evaluation of the different therapeutics used in MS ON. - Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009 Jul 24. [Epub ahead of print] in PubMed

Thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer correlates with disease duration in parallel with corticospinal tract dysfunction in untreated multiple sclerosis. - J Rehabil Res Dev. 2009;46(5):633-42. in PubMed

Integration of genetic risk factors into a clinical algorithm for multiple sclerosis susceptibility: a weighted genetic risk score. - The inclusion of 16 susceptibility alleles into a wGRS can modestly predict MS risk, shows consistent discriminatory ability in independent samples, and is enhanced by the inclusion of non-genetic risk factors into the algorithm. Future iterations of the wGRS might therefore make a contribution to algorithms that can predict a diagnosis of MS in a clinical or research setting. - Lancet Neurol. 2009 Oct 28. [Epub ahead of print] in PubMed

Sleep disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis. - This paper reviews the association of sleep disorders with MS, and discusses the association of sleep disruption with MS fatigue. - Sleep Med Rev. 2009 Oct 28. [Epub ahead of print] in PubMed

Optic neuritis: a review. - Since there is evidence of early axonal damage in acute demyelinating ON, disease-modifying drugs should be considered in patients at high risk of developing MS in the future as prophylaxis against permanent neurological impairment. - Int MS J. 2009 Sep;16(3):82-9. in PubMed

Spotlight on alemtuzumab. - In this review we summarize our experience; describing how this prototypical, "bench-to-bedside" therapy continues to inform basic science, revealing aspects of the pathogenesis of MS and lymphopeniaassociated autoimmunity. - Int MS J. 2009 Sep;16(3):77-81. in PubMed

Early psychiatric manifestation in a patient with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. - Multiple sclerosis can create a variety of somatic, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms. Here we report a patient with early psychiatric symptoms including depression, dementia, and catatonia, who was eventually diagnosed as having primary progressive multiple sclerosis. - Arch Iran Med. 2009 Nov;12(6):595-8. in PubMed



New Tool To Accelerate Discovery Of Autoimmune Disease Mechanisms And Therapies

Currently, 5 - 8% of the U.S. population is afflicted with an autoimmune disease. Many of these are chronic and require life-long care. Moreover, different autoimmune diseases aggregate within a single family, suggesting they are caused by disruptions in common biological pathways.

To help researchers investigate these common pathways, The Jackson Laboratory has published Pathways to Discovery: Autoimmune Diseases .... full report in Medical News Today


Multiple Sclerosis difficult to diagnose

With more than 50 symptoms linked with multiple sclerosis, all which can vary in severity, duration and disability, it is not surprising that Cathy Sanchez went several years without a diagnosis.

"MS is difficult to diagnose going on your symptoms because the symptoms can be the same as a lot of other diseases and conditions," says Sanchez, who is a dispatcher for the Hale County Sheriff’s Office.

She admits that to exacerbate the situation — symptoms come and go and can vary in degrees of severity.

"I would be in the middle of a relapse, then by the time I got to a doctor it would be over. I got to where I thought I was crazy."

Eventually, with perseverance and a strong determination to find out what was going wrong with her body, Sanchez was told that tests showed she had two or three lesions in her brain that could indicate multiple sclerosis.

With a partial diagnosis in hand, she went to a specialist in Houston where she had what she called a "better MRI.

"The results were that I had 10 lesions in my brain."

In multiple sclerosis, lesions, also known as plaques, are patches of inflammation in the central nervous system.

Sanchez says the simple explanation of multiple sclerosis is to compare human nerves to an electric cord.

"I use an electric cord to a lamp as an example," she says. "Nerves are coated with a myelin sheath (a coating of fatty proteins that surrounds, insulates and protects the nerves), and with MS, the immune system attacks the myelin coating until the nerve is exposed. Like the electric cord that is cracked or damaged, when you go to turn on the light, it may work or it may not.
"That’s what MS does to the nerves. Each attack on the myelin leaves damage and scars. The next attack goes for a new place and, over time, those nerves are so scarred that they don’t work."...... full story in

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